dyeing plants

In natural dyeing, it is fundamental that the used plant should be of a dye plant species. This means that these plants must have some substances that react with the mordant to fix the colours in the fabric fibres. Distinct parts of the plant can be used such as leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, barks, roots, branches, and sawdust.
 
In my work with natural dyeing, I used, mostly, the plants that I found on São Paulo streets, such as avocado and guava tree leaves. There is a great plant to use to dye, which is called black-jack (Bidens pilosa), that I picked from within the cracks in the curb. It is considered an invasive species, but it also has medicinal qualities. Many times, I have joined leaves and flowers left on the ground such as hibiscus flowers, eucalyptus leaves, and tropical almond leaves (Terminalia catappa). I usually use kitchen waste like onion skin, carrot top, avocado peel and seed, and Brazilian-pine nutshell. Last but not least, I like using traditional Brazilian dye plants such as urucum (Bixa orellana), which is used by indigenous people to paint their bodies; macela (Achyrocline satureioides ), a specie of daisy with tiny yellow flowers; erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis), which is a typical tea from south of Brazil; and anileira (Indigofera suffruticosa), Brazilian indigo blue.
 
The list is quite long because there are many species that dye
and many of these species are also medicinal plants used frequently in herbal medicine. But I always prefer those plants that somehow surround me.

folha da rom√£ impressa em viscose atrav√©s da impress√£o bot√Ęnica
Viscose dyed with pomegranate leaves using the botanical contact printing technique

colours of nature

The list of colours below presents some plants that work very well for natural dyeing and botanical printing. Many are Brazilian species and others are not, but easy to find. Note that the same plant can produce different colours. This is because depending on the mordant we use for fixation, the tone changes. Like macela (Achyrocline satureioides), which, if used with alum, colours yellow and if used with iron, the colour is moss green. The tones also vary a lot depending on the type of dyeing, whether botanical contact printing or traditional natural dyeing, the quantity of plants used, the time immersed in the dye and many other factors. Plants marked with * (asterisk) were tested only in botanical contact printing.

Blue

Anileira (indigo), black nightshade * (bluish tones

Reddish

Brazilian pine (araucária), brazilwood, barbatimão, fig leaf *, coffee leaf *, eucalyptus cinerea *, Japanese grape leaf *

Gray and graphite

Yerba mate, barbatimão, blackjack, casuarina *, guava *, tropical almond tree *, pixuruca *, niruri *

Yellow

Macela, turmeric, carqueja, chamomile, carrot top, onion skin, cosmos leaf *, silk oak *, dandelion *

Orange

Annatto, black jack *, cosmos *, lichens *, eucalyptus cinerea *

Purple

Blackberry *, black nightshade *, pink knotweed *

Greenish

Macela + indigo, pomegranate, red cabbage, yerba mate, tropical almond tree, carrot top, macela, carqueja *, glory bower *, joá *

Gold and brown

Hibiscus, pomegranate, onion peel, black jack, eucalyptus, rose, walnut, araça, tropical almond tree, Brazilian pine, barbatimão, jabuticaba, guava, mangrove tree leaf, ipe flower *, cotton tree flower, coffee

Blueish gray

Blackberry, roxinha (sawdust), black beans, aroeira, avocado leaf, lavender, geranium *, quaresmeira *

Pinkish

Avocado kernel and peel,¬†aroeira, emba√ļba¬†and¬†jabuticaba¬†*